Choline is a constituent of sphingomyelin and lecithin. It is a precursor of acetylcholine. Choline plays a vital role in methyl group metabolism , carcinogenesis
and lipid transport. Choline deficiency is associated with fatty liver. It maintains cell structural integrity and cell signalling. Choline is implicated in the synthesis
of phospholipids. It acts as a potent biomarker for ischemic heart disease.
Choline chloride has been used:
• in choline release assay
• as an endogenous agonist of sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs)
• as a standard to analyse interrelationships between methionine and choline metabolism
Choline is an essential nutrient, commonly grouped with the B complex vitamins, that plays key roles in many biological processes. Choline, known as Vitamin B4, is a water soluble vitamins. It plays a significant role in nutrition, but its daily requirement seems to be hundreds of times greater than that of other vitamins.
The enzymatic activities of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), two serum enzymes synthesized by the liver and related with inflammation, were decreased in a sepsis animal model injected with LPS.
Choline chloride is added as a standard ingredient to premixes and as an additive to feed preparations for a variety of monogastric animals. Not only traditional poultry and pig feeds, but also exotic species like ostrich and sturgeon are fed with feeds supplemented with this traditional and widespread feed additive.
Recommended usage on basis of Choline Chloride 60% vegetable carrier (gram/mt feed)
Cold water fish:1300~1700
Warm water fish:500~800